Measured Against Reality

Monday, October 16, 2006

Six More Commonly Believed Things That Are False

A few weeks ago I did a post, Six Commonly Believed Things That Are False. One commenter asked for more, and after a few weeks of keeping my eyes and ears open, here it is, “Six More Commonly Believed Thing That Are False”.

1) Medieval people thought that the Earth was Flat

Yes, I know I did this one last time. But I got so many responses from people who disagreed that I had to do it again. This time, I’m just going to quote from Wikipedia:

The late development of European vernacular languages also provides some evidence to the contention that the spherical shape of the Earth was common knowledge outside academic circles. At the time, scholarly work was typically written in Latin. Works written in a native dialect or language (such as Italian or German) were generally intended for a wider audience.

Dante's Divine Comedy, the last great work of literature of the Middle Ages, written in Italian, portrays Earth as a sphere. Also, the Elucidarium of Honorius Augustodunensis (c. 1120), an important manual for the instruction of lesser clergy which was translated into Middle English, Old French, Middle High German, Old Russian, Middle Dutch, Old Norse, Icelandic, Spanish, and several Italian dialects, explicitly refers to a spherical Earth. Likewise, the fact that Bertold von Regensburg (mid-13th century) used the spherical Earth as a sermon illustration shows that he could assume this knowledge among his congregation. The sermon was held in the vernacular German, and thus was not intended for a learned audience.

Reinhard Krüger, a professor for Romance literature at the University of Stuttgart (Germany), has discovered more than 100 medieval Latin and vernacular writers from the late antiquity to the 15th century who were all convinced that the earth was round like a ball.

Is that enough evidence that even common people knew that the Earth was round? Because I certainly think it is. Granted, we’ll never be able to know if everyone thought the earth was round or flat. But every bit of evidence I’ve ever seen has said that people thought it was round, and none of the detractors last time produced a shred saying that they didn’t. So as far as I’m concerned, this is case closed.

2) Spacecraft heat up on re-entry because of the friction of the atmosphere.

I’m going to admit it, this I thought this for a long time. But it turns out that friction has almost nothing to do with the heating of spacecraft upon reentry. It’s nearly entirely due to the compression of the air in front of the craft, which heats the air and the craft.

At speeds exceeding the speed of sound a shock wave builds up, and the spacecraft cannot push it out of the way fast enough, which causes it to compress and heat adiabatically. It’s essentially the same principle that makes a bicycle tire or pump get hot as they’re inflated.

This is why the space shuttle’s nose is blunt, it moves the shockwave further back, causing it to heat the craft less.

3) Men have one less rib than women.

No they don’t. The origin of this one is obvious, Genesis 2:21-22, “And the LORD God caused a deep sleep to fall upon Adam, and he slept: and he took one of his ribs, and closed up the flesh instead thereof; And the rib, which the LORD God had taken from man, made he a woman, and brought her unto the man.”

The ancient Hebrews would surely have known that men and women had the same number of ribs. An interesting explanation I’ve heard for this passage is that the original writers didn’t mean rib.

As it turns out, most animals have a bone in their penis to aid with erections, but humans don’t. (The most likely reason for this is so that unhealthy males are less likely to reproduce, which is advantageous for females. Matt Ridley’s The Red Queen has a more detailed discussion of it).

The Hebrews almost certainly realized this difference, and their explanation is now in Genesis. Of course that’s only a hypothesis, but it’s far superior to the one that the Hebrews thought men were missing a rib.

4) 21 Grams

There’s a popular myth that the body loses 21 grams when we die, and this is widely used as evidence for some kind of soul. Unfortunately for those people, it’s not true

This myth started with Dr. Duncan MacDougall, who conducted some experiments in 1907 that came to this stunning conclusion. But his methods were flawed, his results were inconsistent, his samples were too small, and his ability to measure was not nearly accurate. It is almost a case study in how not to conduct science. Besides, in nearly a century his results have not been repeated. It seems that this is one of those things that people just want to believe, truth be damned.

5) The “Rule of Thumb”

It’s commonly thought that the phrase “rule of thumb” refers to an English law that stated that a man could beat his wife with anything thinner than the width of his thumb. This was stated in the movie Boondock Saints. The problem is that there’s no evidence of this origin, and it appears to have been claimed as common law to justify later lax attitudes toward domestic violence.

The truth is that no one really does know where it originated. Some claim that the most likely origin is from carpenters, who were so skilled that they didn’t use any form of measurement other than the ones immediately on hand. According to one post here, “they measured, not by a rule(r) of wood, but by rule of thumb.” But another further down the page claims that this is mistaken, and that the term originates with using the width of the thumb as an inch in the cloth trade. Yet another claims the measurement origin, citing the Swedish “tum”, meaning inch, which derives from “tumme”, meaning thumb.

The only thing that legal experts seem to agree on is that the phrase almost certainly didn’t begin with domestic abuse in English common law.

6) Eating chocolate leads to acne.

There’s no evidence to suggest that chocolate leads to acne, (although poor diet may), and plenty of evidence saying that it doesn’t. According to Dr. Jerome Shupack, a professor of clinical dermatology at New York University School of Medicine and a member of the American Academy of Dermatology, the medical community has known conclusively for over twenty years that chocolate has no effect on acne.

Dr. Shupack suggests that this myth may have gotten started because chocolate contains theobromine, which is similar to iodine. "There are some people who are sensitive to iodine whose skin breaks out when exposed to it," says Shupack. "Somewhere way back when, some dermatologist, aware that the theobromine in chocolate is similar to iodine, put one and one together and got three." Another possible origin is that someone noticed that kids eat more chocolate than adults and get more acne than adults, and linked the two.

However it got started, this factoid isn’t true.



  • I'm just interested to know why anyone considers theobromine to be similar to iodine in any way.

    Theobromine is similar to two other compounds - theophylline, an isomer found in cocoa; caffeine, which has one extra methyl (CH3-) group.

    It has nothing to do with iodine that I'm aware of.

    By Blogger Mythical, at 7:30 AM, October 17, 2006  

  • You did a great job here. I really wish people would let the "flat earth" thing go. People in Medieval times didn't have any reason to believe the Earth was flat, unless they were told so. The Bible makes references to the shape of the Earth as being round, the most notable being Isaiah 40:22:

    "[It is] he that sitteth upon the circle of the earth, and the inhabitants thereof [are] as grasshoppers; that stretcheth out the heavens as a curtain, and spreadeth them out as a tent to dwell in"

    This may have been a reference to a vision, in which the spherical earth was seen from one location in space and viewed as a circle, but it definitely recognizes the round shape of it. If people took the Bible as fact (which I do think they did, at least in Europe), then this is most likely what they believed. And I'm pretty sure, though not positive, that some other religions had a similar philosophy about the shape of the Earth.

    Whoever spreaded the idea that Columbus was a visionary and he was going against established doctrine, probably just wanted to make Columbus look like a hero (when he was very far from it) or wanted to discredit the established institutions at the time (which were not credible for other reasons entirely).

    Keep up the great blogging!

    By Blogger Christian, at 12:02 PM, October 22, 2006  

  • The flat earth is amazingly common, given that just about any research at all disproves it. Of course, ignorance of heliocentrism is true and pretty much has the same effect in any case where people bring up the flat earth myth. Even more so, perhaps, since the church never burned anyone for claiming the earth was round.

    By Anonymous Anonymous, at 6:35 PM, October 28, 2006  

  • Citing Wikipedia isn't helping your cause. Wikipedia is crap.

    By Blogger Lou, at 6:37 PM, October 28, 2006  

  • Great article!

    That men have one less rib than women seem to be an American affectation. Certainly, I know of no other nation where this is a commonly held view.

    With regards to Columbus being a "visionary", he certainly considered himself one. Most people seem to have forgotten what he was "visionary" about. Columbus had a hypothesis that that radius of the Earth (and hence its circumference on the surface) was much smaller than the then prevailing view; that is, that he could sail westward for a short period to reach China.

    In fact, Columbus was entirely incorrect and the "prevailing" view of the size of the Earth (from the classical Greek era) was mostly correct. If the American continents did not exist, Columbus and his crew would have perished long before reaching Asia by sailing Westward.

    The "discovery" of the American continent by Columbus can be considered a serendipitous accident.

    Michael Tam
    vitualis' Medical Rants
    The Medicine Box

    By Blogger Michael, at 6:39 PM, October 28, 2006  

  • Theobromine has nothing to do with iodine other than the fact that both words end in "-ine". One is a fairly complex organic compound; the other is an element of the halogen group.

    Theobromine has nothing to do with bromine either, except that both words come from the same Greek root.

    By Anonymous Anonymous, at 8:22 PM, October 28, 2006  

  • The only way I can see chocolate giving you acne is if you rub it all over your face.

    By Anonymous Anonymous, at 9:40 PM, October 28, 2006  

  • I remember reading at least 25 years ago an article by Isaac Asimov. In that article,the point was made that:

    Columbus didn't prove the earth was round, what he proved was it doesn't matter how horribly wrong you are as long as you are lucky.

    Turns out as an earlier poster suggested that Columbus thought the world was much smaller. And he sailed west thinking he would reach India in about 3000 miles. When he hit land at almost exactly that distance he was convinced he had reached India but was wrong.

    See Christopher Columbus : Navigator to the New World by Mr Asimov.

    By Anonymous Anonymous, at 10:09 PM, October 28, 2006  

  • every time I eat very rich chocolate I get a pimple, and I don;t normally get pimples otherwise. I don't think it's because of the chocolate itself, I think it's because the particular kind of chocolate bar I'm eating has a LOT of fat.

    By Anonymous Anonymous, at 10:31 PM, October 28, 2006  

  • Another one.
    God and religion are distinct.

    By Blogger mundlapati, at 11:39 PM, October 28, 2006  

  • Since we're talking about COlumbus, he didn't find America, it was leifur heppni, a viking from CIeland...(I'm from ICeland)

    By Anonymous Anonymous, at 2:29 AM, October 29, 2006  

  • Very nice. How about:

    Napoleon was short - he was average height for his time.

    Marie Antoinette said "Let them eat cake" - she did not.

    The Inuit have XXX number of words for snow because it is so import ant to them - in fact their language is such that when you use an adjective with another word, the two join together to for what appears to be a single word. So while we would say "wet snow", "hard snow", "fluffy snow", etc (of which you can think up of thousands) in their language each would be a single word with the same root (for snow) and a different ending for the adjective.

    How about a post about commonly used expressions that are wrong?

    You can't have your cake and eat it too? In fact you can, try it. What you cannot do is eat your cake and then have it too.

    I could care less about it. Which means I do care about it a little since I am saying that I could care less. So what I should have said is what I was thinking, but for some reason did not come out of my mouth, which is I COULDN'T care less.

    It was AN historic moment. Was it? Was it so shocking you had to be taken to an hospital? Do you have an history of illness? Has any member of you family had an hysterectomy?

    By Blogger Michael Brereton, at 3:53 AM, October 29, 2006  

  • Nice article, but Number 6 isn't necessarily false. As a teenager I didn't eat much chocolate, but if I did have a bar, I would break out in spots the next day. I humbly suggest that diet can directly affect the skin. I don't have the know-how to back this up, I'm just thankful that I'm now in my twenties and no longer spotty :D

    By Anonymous Anonymous, at 4:21 AM, October 29, 2006  

  • I'd just like to state the fact that Columbus did not find the continent Icelander by the name Leif Eirikson found it...

    By Anonymous Anonymous, at 5:40 AM, October 29, 2006  

  • My favorite false thing that people believe is that lemmings commit mass suicide jumping off cliffs. Only in Disney films.

    By Blogger thraxil, at 6:19 AM, October 29, 2006  

  • Columbus was also not the first man to find America, Leif Erikson was! He was a viking from Iceland and found America long time before Columbus was even born.

    By Anonymous A happy reader, at 6:33 AM, October 29, 2006  

  • Here is a commonly belied thing about Columbus that is wrong.

    He was not the first man to sail to America. A Viking from Iceland did centuries before him, he was Leif Erikson.

    By Anonymous Anonymous, at 6:40 AM, October 29, 2006  

  • I dont understand about that flat earth. If people always knew that earth is round why did they wait for Columbo to start his trip? Why nobody else before didn't go that way?

    By Anonymous Anonymous, at 7:45 AM, October 29, 2006  

  • Theobromine is a chemical compound which contains an atom of bromine. Bromine and iodine are in the same column of the periodic table, and therefore can be expected to share at least some characteristics. It is entirely plausible that people who are allergic to iodine might also be allergic to bromine, and therefore might have a reaction when exposed to theobromine.

    I in the original sentence, instead of

    "this myth may have gotten started because chocolate contains theobromine, which is similar to iodine"

    the sentence should have been something like:

    "this myth may have gotten started because chocolate contains theobromine, a compound which in turn contains the element bromine, which is similar to iodine."

    By Blogger Ralph, at 7:58 AM, October 29, 2006  

  • Whoops - I was dead wrong, and the anonymous poster above was right.

    According to Wikipedia, theobromine contains no bromine! Sorry.

    By Blogger Ralph, at 8:02 AM, October 29, 2006  

  • Couple of thoughts:

    - On Columbus, my understanding was not that he thought the world was much smaller than the prevailing view; in fact the prevailing view was that the world is much smaller than it is. His deal was that by sailing west, following (what became known as) the trade winds across an open expanse of largely-unexplored ocean, you could get to the Orient more quickly and easily - that is, not that it was theoretically possible to do it, but practical. That was something of a leap of faith.

    As for the "round," i.e., spherical, world part, at a history museum where I worked we were sometimes asked by some visitor why Columbus thought the world was round.

    "I dunno," was our standard joking reply. "Probably from one of those globes they sold in Genoa."

    - Speaking of round worlds, being something of a stickler as to what constitutes proof of a contention, the reference here dispelling the "flat Earth" myth I find most persuasive is the sermon. The others refer for the most part to what would be in the period educated elites - and saying that because an educated person knew it therefore everyone knew it doesn't follow.

    For the same reason, I find the Biblical reference to "the circle of the earth" less than compelling, since it would be easy to envision the Earth as a flat, round disc. A circle and a sphere are not the same thing.

    But here's what interests me now: If, as certainly appears true, medieval people were aware the Earth is a sphere, where did the idea they thought it to be flat come from? Did someone spin it out of whole cloth? If so, who? When? Why?

    By Anonymous Anonymous, at 11:11 AM, October 29, 2006  

  • In response to the most recent Anonymous, my understanding is that Washington Irving invented it wholesale in his biography of Columbus, and then that somehow became Gospel.

    As for everyone who says that Leif Erickson discovered America, it's probably true that he was the first European to sail to America, but I think it's unfair to the thousand (and perhaps millions) of people who were already living there to say he discovered it. I find that to be a particularly Euro-centric way of thinking, but maybe I'm just quibbling about language (after all, "discovered" is shorter than "was the first Europen to sail to").

    By Blogger Stupac2, at 11:15 AM, October 29, 2006  

  • the rule of thumb stems from the old beer-brewing art. they used to check the temperature with the thumb, to make sure that it was right. since beer was brewed as early as 4000 BC, it is atleast as good a candidate as the others that were listed

    By Anonymous Anonymous, at 11:35 AM, October 29, 2006  

  • I love chocolate and I have never gotten acne from eating it..

    anonymous: "The only way I can see chocolate giving you acne is if you rub it all over your face."

    chocolate is used in face creams and other skin products.. or so I've heard :)

    By Anonymous íslendingurinn, at 11:54 AM, October 29, 2006  

  • My doctor (an Osteopath), suggested I start taking flax seed oil to reduce the onset of adult acne. He explained to me that acne in adults is caused by inability to properly digest partially hydrogenated vegetable oils. Yes, cheap chocolates often contain partially hydrogenated vegetable oils. Read the label and see for yourself. Fortunately, taking flax seed oil allows me the luxury of eating as much chocolate and chips and french fries as I want, with minimal impact on my gorgeous flesh.

    By Blogger Noir, at 12:27 PM, October 29, 2006  

  • The world is not flat?? - NO WAY maybe it is round like a disk - but flat it is. People are falling off all the time - Jimmy Hoffa did & The Republicans are periously close to falling off.
    As for the first European to discover the Americas it was St Brendan the Navigator about the year 900 - he sailed from Ireland to the Americas in an empty whiskey carton ( actually a leather clad boat)

    By Anonymous Anonymous, at 1:26 PM, October 29, 2006  

  • "The Hebrews almost certainly realized this difference, and their explanation is now in Genesis. Of course that’s only a hypothesis, but it’s far superior to the one that the Hebrews thought men were missing a rib."

    The way I was explained this is basically if a man has his arm cut off and then has a child, the child will still be born with both arms, so if a rib was removed from Adam, it wouldn't then turn into an inherited trait anyway. It's not a genetic change. And why would God need to remove the genes that regulate the growth of a single rib in EVERY COPY of Adam's DNA to create woman?

    By Anonymous Anonymous, at 4:03 PM, October 29, 2006  

  • in regards to the world being flat one.. HAHA my hick town Highschool rox!!! they taught US that columbus did not think it was flat, they knew the world was HUGE but the seas were filled with horrible monsters, as shown on some of the older maps. woohoo TEXAS rox...

    By Anonymous Anonymous, at 4:43 PM, October 29, 2006  

  • chocolate some times has milk in it or some other dairy product in it may be you are allergic to that idk jus a thought

    By Anonymous Anonymous, at 6:23 PM, October 29, 2006  

  • Regarding first evidence that the world is round: I have heard that a Greek philosopher noticed that the shadow cast on the moon during a lunar eclipse was round, and put 2 and 2 together.

    Regarding first discovery of America: Leif Ericson and Bjarni Herjolfson are the earliest well-documented discovers I have heard of. St. Brendan, other Europeans and even the Chinese claim earlier less well documented touchings of America.

    Regarding a flat earth: that appears to be a metaphor connected with the "falls off the edge of" clause, and that is connected, for good reason, to sailors going out and never coming back. The Icelandic sagas include the story of Ari the traveler who sailed away. Years later another traveler landed on a strange shore inhabited by strange people and encountered Ari in his old age. So part of Columbus' work consisted of persuading people to go further than they had ever gone before. He had to face down rebellious sailors on Oct 10th and Oct 11th before they actually found new land on Oct 12th.

    By Anonymous Anonymous, at 7:29 PM, October 29, 2006  

  • I just wanted to say that in my language (croatian) shupack means asshole. So i fount it funny when I read # 6 with Dr. Shupack's name in it.
    Have fun, live in peace...

    By Anonymous Anonymous, at 7:42 PM, October 29, 2006  

  • Why is there debate about who discovered America? When foreign explorers first stepped onto the shores of North America, there were already many thousands of people there living very full ang imaginative lives. THEY knew where America was.

    By Anonymous Anonymous, at 8:10 PM, October 29, 2006  

  • Did Columbus ever actually land on North America? I thought the closest he ever got was "Hispanola" which is now the West Indies -- Haiti, Dominican Republic, etc. Correct me if I'm wrong, but Columbus didn't ever see North America. He left not knowing where he was going, arrived not knowing where he was, returned not knowing where he had been, and did it all on borrowed money! He was a true Republican.

    By Anonymous Anonymous, at 8:18 PM, October 29, 2006  

  • At the time of Columbus, anyone with schooling had to have known that the Earth wasn't flat or a disk. After all, the Greek statues of Atlas show him lifting a sphere on his shoulders...not a pancake!

    By Anonymous Klinker, at 8:36 PM, October 29, 2006  

  • Stupac2 -

    Thanks for the response re: Washington Irving; when I made my comment I had not yet read the earlier "6 Things" post.

    However, stubborn stickler that I am, I still wonder. Irving wasn't writing poetry (e.g., "The Courtship of Miles Standish") or trying to perpetrate a hoax (e.g, the "biography" of Howard Hughes), he was writing, supposedly, a biography.

    So why would he simply make up something? The only reason offered is to build up Columbus by making the tale more dramatic. But frankly, it seems to me that the facts are quite dramatic as they are. Why needlessly embellish them in a way that could be easily challenged?

    So I wonder if he made it up or if he was saying something that was (at least relatively) commonly believed about earlier times. If that's true, we're still left with the question of how the belief came about.

    By Anonymous Anonymous, at 8:57 PM, October 29, 2006  

  • The first european to set foot on american soil was not Leif Ericson nor his father Eric the Red. It was
    St. Brendan of Ireland. His trip, made in ox-hide boats, was duplicated not too long ago (nineties I belive).

    By Anonymous Anonymous, at 9:01 PM, October 29, 2006  

  • Anonymous, I'm not entirely sure why he did it. But it's entirely possible that he just made it up, or got it from a mistaken source. I've never seen the mistake attributed to anyone but him, so I tend to think that he made it up.

    By Blogger Stupac2, at 9:12 PM, October 29, 2006  

  • Actually, Lief didn't discover america....

    America was discovered by the first people to come here. We call their descendants indians. It's all good though because now they have casinos.

    By Anonymous Anonymous, at 9:37 PM, October 29, 2006  

  • I wonder if people in the middle ages used the flat earth as a way to try to disprove the bible? people are always trying to argue such things, so while people would have known it was round from the bible, there really wouldnt have beenany other "concrete" proof of it until man went into space and could see the full picture. So ti might have been an easy argument to use back then.

    Just a thought.

    By Anonymous Anonymous, at 9:49 PM, October 29, 2006  

  • It was not Leif Erikson but two other guys, Bjarni Herjolfson and Karl Karlsefni of Iceland who first found North America. They later sold the "directions" to Lucky Leif. Leif did establish a short lived colony at L'Anse Aux Meadows on Newfoundland.

    By Anonymous Just a guy who actually reads, at 10:13 PM, October 29, 2006  

  • 'adams rib'- what if the original verion said something more like: woman is the female side of mankind- so the more colorful version would have eve drawn from the side of adam- instead of saying that a rib was taken from adam and transformed into eve?

    By Anonymous oddjohn, at 11:04 PM, October 29, 2006  

  • Regaring the "many words for snow", I'd be surprised if there wasn't some truth in that. After all, in my native Sweden I can think of at a few words for snow in different forms (tö, skare, etc.), and we have a mild climate over here.

    I would suspect you too can think of different words for snow. Snow and ice and not the same word. Hail is a third word. It's all frozen water, just different forms.

    I'm sure northern american dialects has some more words for you as well.

    By Anonymous Anonymous, at 3:21 AM, October 30, 2006  

  • More Columbus stuff...

    Christopher Columbus's ideas DID go against knowledge about the Earths's shape when he sailed West. He actually thought the world was (this is true, get ready for it) pear-shaped, with a sort-of nipple on top, where Heaven would be. (Read his voyages book.)

    It's interesting most people don't know that, and I'm surprised no one's mentioned it yet... :)

    By Anonymous Anonymous, at 8:28 AM, October 30, 2006  

  • wikipedia is more like a gossip magazine, i would'nt take it as being the whole and only truth...

    i haven't done any research on the matter but the space craft re-entering the atmosphere story, doesn't make all that much sense.

    e.g. when you pump air into a bicycle tyre it is the friction of the air molecules rubbing together that create heat... not compression?? when an aircraft reaches the speed of sound it has to break through a shock wave, hence breaking the sound barrier, once the shock wave is broken it actually follows behind the aircraft not in front??, that's why you see a jet fly by in silence... then your ears nearly explode a couple of seconds later... super sonic dude!!

    i'll stick with the old friction story thanks...

    By Blogger Jeremy, at 11:57 AM, November 06, 2006  

  • Jeremy:

    This is basic physics:

    When heat is kept constant, and density is increased, temperature will increase.

    If you don't believe the density is inversely proportional to temperature bit, go and get a can of compressed air, and let it all out. If friction is the primary component in temperature change, the can should heat up. I'll bet you $100 that it doesn't.

    As far as super-sonic airplanes, a sonic boom is caused by air building up in front of the air plane, causing a shock-wave. The shock-wave hits you after the airplane passes because the airplane is moving at super-sonic (faster than sound) speeds.

    By Anonymous Anonymous, at 3:00 PM, November 26, 2006  

  • Re: the 'could care less' thing...just wanted to let you Yanks know that in Australia we DO say 'couldn't care less':)

    By Anonymous Anonymous, at 12:46 AM, May 10, 2007  

  • Isotretinoin (the generic name for accutane) is used to treat the most severe and disfiguring cases of nodular acne. Most Doctors would only recommend this treatment only after all other forms of acne medication have been tried and proved unsuccessful.

    Serious Accutane Side Effects
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    More detailed info on this page:

    Information on the development, history and legacy of Accutane.

    By Blogger jillian, at 6:18 AM, July 16, 2007  

  • i agree that citing wikipedia doesn't prove any of your points. I know kids at my high school that can get into the main editing thing and edit the webpages so any info off wikipedia probly isnt acurate. who knos how many ppl do that all the time.

    By Anonymous Anonymous, at 3:03 PM, October 02, 2007  

  • The word in Hebrew translated as "rib" means something more like "flank" or "side". In which case the original Adam was split down the middle and made into two people, one male, one female. Puts the story into complete agreement with the Bhagavad Gita. Rabbinic sources (from originally oral stories) already put it closer to the Bhagavad Gita version.

    By Anonymous Anonymous, at 3:16 PM, July 30, 2009  

  • Yeah.....uh.....You are 100 percent wrong about people of the ancient world not believing in a flat earth. It was a very widespread belief. To prove my point....I give you this qoute from wikapedia the same sorce you used LOL "Belief in a flat Earth is found in mankind's oldest writings. In early Mesopotamian thought, the world was portrayed as a flat disk floating in the ocean, and this forms the premise for early Greek maps such as those of Anaximander and Hecataeus of Miletus. The same belief is found in the Old Testament and in ancient Egypt, both of which refer to the "circle of the earth". I was going to copy and paste the entire article...but it was much too long. It gives specific examples of cultures believing in a flat earth from around the world. You claimed you had not come accross anything like this in your research....well with all due did not do very good research LOL!!! Here is the page

    By Blogger bhornbuckle75, at 11:19 AM, August 10, 2009  

  • As for Iodine and theobromine and the simulatities between the two....The crystal structures of (phenacetin)2· HI5 (triclinic, a = 12.44 angstrom, b = 10.67, c = 5.81, α = 103.3 degrees, β = 103.7, γ = 87.3, P1̄, Z = 1) and (theobromine)2· H2I8 (triclinic, a = 14.38 angstrom, b = 14.07, c = 7.75, α = 91.2 degrees, β = 100.8, γ = 91.0, P1̄, Z = 2) have been solved by Patterson methods, using intensities measured by Weissenberg diffractometer with graphite-monochromated Mo Kα radiation (2815 and 2827 intensities, R = 8.3% and 11.1% respectively). Both structures are polyiodide salts, with alternating cationic (organic) and anionic (polyiodide) layers. In (phenacetin)2· HI5 the organic layers consist of hydrogen-bonded phenacetin 'dimers', with the proton bridging the oxygens of the carbonyl bonds in a short hydrogen bond (d(O...O) = 2.46 (2) angstrom); the polyiodide layers contain zigzag chains of alternating iodine molecules and triiodide ions, with secondary bonds (d(I...I) = 3.55 angstrom) between these moieties. There is only van der Waals bonding between parallel chains. This substance, bis-(phenacetin)hydrogen iodine triiodide, is a type A basic salt. In (theobromine)2· H2I8 the organic layer consists of hydrogen-bonded theobrominium cations and the polyiodide layer of centrosymmetric S-shaped (I16 4-) ions, with the arrangement I3 -· I2· I3 -· I3 -· I2· I3 -; there is secondary bonding between triiodide and iodine moieties within the hexadecaiodide ions. There are tertiary bonds (d(I...I) = 3.84 angstrom) between adjacent I16 4- ions.
    As you can see the connection is obvious........maybe.....honestly I have absolutaly no Idea what I just posted...I really dont have any knowledge whatsoever in Chemestry....I just copied and pasted it from some site..I saw both words in there somewhere though.....and I thought it made me looke really smart for a second..LOL!!!

    By Blogger bhornbuckle75, at 11:32 AM, August 10, 2009  

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